Methods of executive development
Methods of development or executive development can be broadly divided into two categories.
1) On the job development or executive development: it means increasing the ability of the executives while performing their duties, to develop them in real work situation. It includes the following methods:
a) On the job coaching: under this method superior only guides his subordinate about various methods and skill required to do the job. Here the superior only guides his subordinate he gives his assistance whenever required. The main purpose of this type of training is not only to learn the necessary skills but to give them diversified knowledge to grow in future. The superior is responsible for subordinate’s performance. So the superior must always provide the subordinate necessary assistance whenever required.
b) Understudy: under this method of development the trainee is prepared to fill the position of his superior. He in the near future will assume to do the duties of his superior when he leaves the job due to retirement, transfer or promotion.
c) Job rotation: here the executive is transferred from one job to another or from one plant to other. The trainee learns the significance of the management principles by transferring learning from one job to another. This method helps in injecting new ideas into different departments of the organization.
d) Committee assignment: under this method committee is constituted and assigned a subject to give recommendations. The committee makes a study of the problem and gives suggestions to the departmental head. It helps the trainees because every member of the committee gets a chance to learn from others.
2) Off the job development or executive development: here the executives gets the training off the job means not when they are doing the job. It involves following methods:
a) Special courses: here the executives attend the special courses which are organized by the organization. Under this experts from professional institutions provide them the training. Now days it is becoming popular but it is difficult to say whether these courses improve the performance of the employees or not.
b) Specific readings: here the human resource development manager provides copies of specific articles published in the journals to the executives to improve their knowledge. The executives study such books or articles to enhance their knowledge.
c) Special projects: under this method the trainee is given a project related to the objective of the department. The project helps the trainee in acquiring the knowledge of the particular topic.
d) Conference training: here the organization conducts a group meeting. In which the executive learn from the others by comparing his opinion with others.
e) Sensitivity training: it is also known as T group training or laboratory training. It is conducted under controlled conditions. T group help in learning certain things, they help the participants to understand how group actually work. It helps in increasing the tolerance power of the individual and ability to understand others. T group generally sits together and discuss for hours where the members learn about their own behavior and behavior of others.