Meaning of controlling in Business Management

Controlling is one of the functions of management. It is the function which brings back to the management cycle to planning. It can be defined as comparing actual performance with the set standard performance. Then finding out the deviation if any, it’s reason after that taking the corrective action so that in future actual performance match with the set standard performance.

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Concept and Types of industry

Industry means place where the resources are converted into finished or useful products. There are basically three types of industries.

I) Primary industry

II) Secondary industry

III) Tertiary industry

I) Primary industry: This type of industry involves in the activities related to extraction and production of natural resources. It also performs activities relating to the reproduction and development of living organisms. It is of two types:

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Concept of Commerce

Commerce includes all those activities which are necessary for maintaining the free flow of goods and services from the producers to the ultimate consumers.

Branches of commerce

  1. Trade: trade refers to sale or exchange of goods and services. It is of two types: internal and external trade. Internal trade refers to the trade within the country. It is further divided into two parts wholesale trade and retail trade. In wholesale trade goods are bought in wholesale and sold to retailers. In retail trade goods are bought from whole-sellers and sold to the ultimate customers.  External trade refers to the trade outside the country. It is of three types: Import, Export and Entrepot. Import means purchasing goods from other country. Export means selling goods to other country. Entrepot means goods are imported for exporting to other country.
  2. Aids to trade: It means all those activities which help in the trading process. These are: transport and communication, banking and finance, insurance, advertising, and warehousing. Transport creates place utility by movement of goods from one place to another. Banking creates finance utility by providing financial assistance to the businessman. Insurance creates risk utility by providing cover against business risks. Warehousing creates time utility by storing the goods and advertising creates the knowledge utility by providing information to the customers. The following diagram will explain in detail about the commerce and its various types:
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Difference between Business, Employment and Profession

Dear Friends, you must have heard about business, employment and profession. Many of us want job that is employment but many of us want to start business also. Both are professional development paths.

Let us today formally understand the Differences between Business, Employment and Profession in tabular form. The following table is divided into four parts that is basis, business, employment and profession:

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Concept of total product, marginal product and average product

The concept of total product, marginal product and average product is very important in economics. Let us discuss them one by one:

TOTAL PRODUCT (TP): It is the sum total of output produced by all the units of variable factor along with the fixed factors of production.

TP=50+70+80+80+60=340 UNITS OF A COMMODITY (Refer below table)

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Concept of production function and its types

Today we will discuss about concept of production function and its types. It is the functional relationship between physical input and physical output of a commodity.

               QX=f (L, K)

30X=f (2L, 10K)

According to it 30 units are produced using 2 units of labour and 10 units of capital. By implying more units of labour say 4 units and 20 units of capital the output could be increased to 60 units.

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6 Factors affecting elasticity of demand

These are the factors which decide the demand elasticity of the consumer. The elasticity of demand may be more elastic or less elastic. The six factors which determine the elasticity of demand are given below:

  • Nature of commodity: There are three types of commodities. The necessities are the things which are essential for the consumer like salt, sugar etc. The demand of these kinds of products does not change much with the change in the price. So the demand of these kinds of products is inelastic. But in case of luxuries products the demand varies with the change in the price. if the price is high some people will stop buying it while if the price  falls some people will start buying it.  So the demand of these kinds of products is more than elastic. In case of comforts which are required for the comfort of the consumer like air conditioners, heater etc. their demand is elastic.
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3 Exceptions to law of demand

There are sometimes exceptions to the law of demand:

1. Articles of distinction: it is also called Veblen effect. According to Prof. Veblen, there are some goods which are articles of distinction. These articles are demanded buy the consumer due to high price. If their price falls people will not buy it.

2. Giffen goods: this concept was given by Sir Robert Giffin and it is also called Giffin Paradox. These are inferior goods. According to it if the income of the consumer increases then the demand of such commodities will fall on the other hand if the income of the consumer falls then demand of these products will increase.

3. Ignorance: sometime people buy costly goods due to the ignorance. They don’t have the knowledge regarding the value of the product.