Why does demand curve slopes downward?

Last time, we have discussed about the concept of demand. Today we will show that there is an inverse relationship between demand and quantity demanded. There are the following reasons due to fall in the demand curve (refer below figure):

1. Law of diminishing marginal utility: it means that if we go on consuming more and more units of a commodity the utility derived from each additional unit goes on diminishing. So for every additional unit the consumer is willing to spend only at less price.

2. Income effect: It means the effect on the quantity demanded when the real income of the consumer changes due to change in the price of the commodity. For example the consumer has rs. 50 and each apple cost 10 Rs. And if he buys 5 apples then he will have to pay Rs. 50. But if the price of apples falls from Rs. 10 to Rs. 8 then he will have to spend Rs. 40. This means his real income will increase and he will be able to buy anything else with the saved Rs. 10.

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