Difference between positive economics and normative economics

Last time we have discussed the types of economics. Today we will discuss the difference between positive economics and normative economics. Let us discuss it:

POSITIVE ECONOMICS:  

It deals with the economic issues of past, present and future and tells about what was, what is, what would be. Positive economics is basically based on the facts and figures which can be verifiable.

For example India is the second largest populated country; it is a positive statement nobody can deny it as it is based on the facts and figures.

NORMATIVE ECONOMICS:

It deals with the opinions of economists related to the economic issues and tells about what ought to be. Normative economics is basically based on the opinions which can’t be verifiable. For example there should be the development industries in underdeveloped countries to make them developing countries. So this statement is just an opinion and it is just a judgment.

I hope you have understood the difference between positive economics and normative economics.

Types of Economics

The term economics is very common and Economics can be broadly classified into two parts:

MICRO ECONOMICS: in microeconomics we study “I” which means individual. It means in micro economics we study everything from the point of view of individual. The word micro itself means small. In micro economics we study individual firm, individual producer, individual consumer etc. Continue reading “Types of Economics”

Five year plans, the year of implementation and objectives of these plans

Dear friends, let us discuss today about the various five year plans, the year of implementation and objectives of these plans. The thirteenth plan is going on.

Year Five year plans Objectives of plans
1951-56 First Five Year Plan
  • Social service
  • Reconstructing economy
  • To solve food crisis and increasing production capital
1956-61 Second Five Year Plan
  • To increase investment in basic and key industries
  • To solve the problem of employment and inequality
1961-66 Third Five Year Plan
  • To expand basic industries like steel, chemical and fuel
1966-69  Plan Holiday
  • 14 banks were nationalized and green revolution happened
1969-74 Fourth Five Year Plan
  • Growth with stability
  • Improve public sector
  • To increase employment opportunities and self sufficiency in agriculture sector
1974-78 Fifth Five Year Plan
  • Increase employment, medical facilities, improve social welfare
  • Agricultural development, export promotion and import reduction
1978-79 Rolling Plan  
1980-85 Sixth Five Year Plan
  • To encourage modernization
  • Reduce poverty
  • To improve standard of living and reduce regional disparities
1985-90 Seventh Five Year Plan
  • To provide people food, cloth, shelter
  • Universal education and health facilities
1992-97 Eighth Five Year Plan
  • To reduce population explosion
  • To make primary education compulsory
  • To strengthen infrastructure
1997-2002 Ninth Five Year Plan
  • To improve quality of life
  • To regional imbalance
  • To promote self dependence
2002-2007 Tenth Five Year Plan
  • To reduce regional discrepancies of financial market
  • To accelerate saving and promote investment
  • To make strategies for reducing population
2007-2012 Eleventh Five Year Plan
  • To strengthen the weaker sections of the society
  • To empower women
  • To expand irrigation facilities
  • To improve quality of life of citizens
2012-2017 Twelfth Five Year Plan
  • To improve the international trade and promoting export
  • Making India progressive
2017-2022 Thirteenth Five Year Plan
  • To promote start up India
  • Making young entrepreneurs.

 

This was all about the various five year plans, the year of implementation and objectives of these plans. The thirteenth plan is going on.

 

Difference between topline and bottom line growth

 

Dear readers, if you are management student or follower of business news, you must have heard the terms top line growth and bottom line growth of a company.  You must have heard that top line of a company is good but bottom line is not. Many of you may be aware about the terms and many may not be. Let us understand the difference between these terms: Continue reading “Difference between topline and bottom line growth”

Quatitatitive measures of credit control

Quatitatitive measures of credit control are also called general measures of credit control. These measures refer to the methods which are used to direct the total volume of credit in the banks. These measures consists of the following methods

  1. Bank rate: it means the rate of interest at which central bank discounts the bills of the commercial banks. If central bank wants to expand the credit then central bank will reduce the bank rate. Reduce bank rate will reduce the cost of borrowing of the commercial banks who in turn charge low rate of interest from their borrowers. This means the price of credit will decrease. Business community will borrow more money which leads to more investment, production, generate more employment and income in hands of people. Thus the purchasing power of people will increase and aggregate demand will also increase. While on the other hand if there is the situation of inflation means there is increase in the general price level central bank will contract the credit by increasing the bank rate. Increased bank rate will increase the cost of borrowing of the commercial banks who in turn charge high rate of interest from their borrowers. This means the price of credit will increase. Business community will discouraged to borrow money which leads to fall in investment, production, employment and income in hands of people. Thus the purchasing power of people will decrease and aggregate demand also decrease which will solve the situation of inflation. The present bank rate is 9 %.
  2. Open market operations: it means buying and selling of securities of central bank in the open market. If the central bank wants to expand the credit then it would purchase the securities from the commercial banks. Which will in turn generate the money supply in the market and if the central bank contract the credit then this means it will sell the securities to the commercial banks which in turn reduce the money supply with the commercial banks.

Continue reading “Quatitatitive measures of credit control”