Profit volume ratio (also commonly known as P/v ratio) is the extension of the marginal costing. It is a very important tool in the hands of policy maker to maximize their profit. It checks the relationship of cost and profit to the volume of business to maximize profit.
Business faces different situations like boom, depression, competition etc, in such cases the profit also changes. In such situations p/v ratio helps the management. In narrow sense it helps in finding breakeven point and in broader sense it helps in profit, cost and sale at different level of output. Continue reading
Meaning of Marginal cost
Chartered Institute of Management Accounting (CIMA) defines the term marginal cost that it excludes fixed overhead cost entirely from cost of production but charged against ‘fund’ which arises out of excess of selling price over total variable cost.
So it is the amount at any given volume of output by which total cost is changed if the volume of output is increased or decreased by one unit. Continue reading
Last time we have discussed the meaning and types of holding company. Today we will discuss another type pf company that is subsidiary company. The company whose shares have been acquired is subsidiary company. A company can be subsidiary of another company if following conditions fulfilled.
1) A company can be subsidiary of another company if other company controls the composition of the board of directors.
2) If a company acquires more than the 50% equity shares of any other company.
3) Also there is the case when it becomes the subsidiary of another company which itself is a subsidiary of a third company. For example: if R is the subsidiary of Y and Y is subsidiary of X than R would subsidiary of both Y and X.
There is a wholly owned subsidiary company which means when a holding company acquires 100% shares of subsidiary company.
A company which acquires more than 50% equity shares of any other company in order to control the composition of its board of directors, it is called holding company. Holding company’s main aim is to eliminate the competition, to achieve the economies of production and to obtain the economies of management. Continue reading
As per section 14 it is the price paid by Transferee Company to the transferor company for the purchase of its business.
Methods of purchase consideration:
There are different methods of purchase consideration depending upon the terms and conditions settled between the transferor company. Continue reading
Valuation of shares
Generally shares of the company are valued at the following cases:
1) At the time of the assessment by income tax authority.
2) At the time of the raising loans.
3) At the time of the paying court fee.
4) At the time of the valuing the assets of the company.
5) At the time of the purchase and sale of the shares in private company. Continue reading
Liquidation of companies means by which affairs of company wound up by law. A company can not die natural death as it is created by law.
Liquidation of companies is done by three ways:
1) Compulsory winding up by court
2) Voluntary winding up by members
3) Winding up under the supervision of court Continue reading